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Amusing Ourselves to Death?

A suggested x-risk/Great Filter is the possibility of advanced entertainment technology leading to wireheading/mass sterility/population collapse and extinction. As media consumption patterns are highly heritable, any such effect would trigger rapid human adaptation, implying extinction is almost impossible unless immediate collapse or exponentially accelerating addictiveness.

In one narrative of doom, developments in entertainment & recreation like the mass media or designer drugs continuously threaten humanity by creating ever more effective superstimuli—stimuli which are irresistible, as they exploit hardwired preferences, which humans find impossible to resist en masse, any more than the herring gull chick can resist begging for food from a colorfully-painted needle rather than an accurate model of herring gull heads, or other birds can resist nurturing bigger brighter more colorful eggs rather than their own, or Australian jewel beetles can resist mating with beer bottles.

Obesity is on the rise as the food-industrial complex engineers ever more palatable foods, stuffed with salt and fat and sugar, deliciously addictive. Tech companies harvest gigabytes of personal data, using ever more sophisticated & advanced AI tailoring of ads to individuals, pervasively inserted into their media streams, persuading them to buy or think whatever the advertisers wish (subliminal advertising being so dangerously effective it must be outlawed). Media and pornography and harlequin romance novels offer inhumanly perfect simulacrum of sexually attractive & high status people, selecting the most beautiful people out of hundreds of millions and then further enhancing them with special effects into hyperreality, with infinite amounts of porn for every preference and kink on tap via the Internet—and sexbots eventually to come. Social media like Facebook or Instagram expose us to highly-selective curated ideal lifestyles, inspiring envy for lives that never were, and spreading rage and depression. Cheap pervasive ‘firewater’ shattered aboriginal tribes and groups, already weakened by epidemic and dispossession, who had never been exposed to industrial-scale alcohol, even in England, where in the early Industrial Revolution, alcohol consumption spiked in the USA1 and “there were gin pushcarts working their way through the streets of London” as Shirky puts it (“Gin, Television, and Social Surplus”), and alcoholism & the “corner saloon” was seen as one of the most severe of all social ills (prompting Prohibition). Ultraviolence on TV desensitizes men to violence while early TV was a “vast cultural wasteland” sucking up hundreds of billions of man-hours a year watching vapid shows like Gilligan’s Island (even now, if time diaries are to be believed, Americans continue to spend multiple hours a day on average watching TV).2 Penny dreadfuls, and then comic books, seduce innocent children with their gruesome lurid imagery blurring the line between fantasy & reality while glorifying criminality & aggression, triggering waves of murderous juvenile delinquency. New highly potent “research chemical” opiates manufactured in Chinese labs ravage the American hinterland. Slot machines & video games offer push-button experiences more compelling than real life, with video gamers taught to stalk & entrap vulnerable women, or collapsing in Internet cafes and streamers dying at their post, ‘click’ or ‘social gaming’ companies like Zynga cunningly exploiting helplessly addictive users by mastery of Pavlovian operant conditioning techniques embodied in Farmville, steadily draining them of all their cash in return for making meaningless numbers go up while the players cease even to enjoy the game (and VR increasingly offering a full replacement for dreary reality)—and need one mention how violent games glamorize gun violence and are are simulators training teenagers for school shootings like Columbine? “Fake news”, manufactured in bulk online & flooding Americans through social media, ensured the election of President Donald Trump & the reign of the Republican Party, threatening to end the American democratic experiment forever. Psychological research into human behavior has been weaponized as “nudges” by greedy marketers, suckering buyers into buying overpriced goods like hotel rooms by shady gimmicks such as claiming to almost be out of rooms. Worse, new online mediums and advanced ‘reinforcement learning’ algorithms manipulate innocent viewers into watching or reading dangerous materials, leading to a steady spiral of ever more extreme content consumption culminating in anti-vaccine or Flat Earth or Republican beliefs, with “Elsagate” and “unboxing” addling children into nonsensical violent sexual video loops interspersed with brainwashing consumerism into the pre-verbal. With continued progress in science & technology, one day we may invent the final entertainment or drug, a species-wide Infinite Jest, something so entertaining or addictive that humanity wireheads itself into being unable to feed, protect, or reproduce itself—eventually going extinct. They literally amuse themselves to death.

This theory can even be extended to explain the Fermi paradox’s Great Silence: why do we see absolutely no trace of alien civilizations when astronomical data indicates habitable worlds should be quite common and technological/statistical considerations show the universe could be rapidly colonized? Many explanations for the Great Silence show a spectacular failure of imagination by postulating extremely narrow mechanisms, like “Western liberalism” or “nuclear war”, for the Silence, which do not do a good job of explaining why the hyperintelligent eusocial ants of Knara Prime went extinct or the immortal sentient silicon crystals of Delti 10 never spread across the universe or the absence of the self-stabilizing chaotic storm cell civilizations of the Jovian planets. But the “amusing oneself to death” hypothesis is plausibly universal: since precognition is impossible and it’s impossible to know the true fitness of actions & choices in advance, all evolved species must use proxies for fitness; if they advance in science & technology to the point of interstellar civilization being possible, they must also have developed a wide variety of tools and understanding of their own physical substrates, which allow faking fitness signals and hijacking preferences; if that is possible, then at least some individuals will do so out of curiosity or for incentives; hence, all interstellar civilizations are at risk of amusing themselves to death and if the risk is sufficiently great, it could be the Great Filter.

In another narrative, superstimuli may be problems, but they tend to be self-limiting ones: people adapt, culturally and biologically, to them, and the problems gradually go away, if indeed they were ever remotely as big as they were portrayed to be, in an endless Sisyphean cycle of technology panics. Early advertising strikes a modern reader as being laughably transparent, crude, and unconvincing3; the first Internet banner ads in the 1990s reportedly had clickthrough rates >10%, while now the most sophisticated & carefully targeted ad is doing well if it can get a 0.01% clickthrough rate—assuming the traffic isn’t all bots or accidental misclicks—as audiences experience “advertising wearout” & adapt to ignore ads (Kinnucan et al 1993, Blair1987/2000, Braun & Moe2013); and there are serious questions about to what extent Internet advertising works at all & if the tiny effects can actually be measured (see references in my ad A/B test). Alcohol ravaged American Indian tribes and contributed to the destruction of many of them, but while alcoholism and drug abuse remain endemic problems on Indian reservations, the pitch does not appear so apocalyptic these days; Prohibition to reduce alcoholism, rather than being such a burning issue that the very Constitution must be amended, is invoked mostly as a historical fiasco & criticism of the War on Drugs. TV faces competition from other forms of recreation, and is no longer so dominant, with the intellectual quality of TV massively increasing over time (in part thanks to peculiar tech economics like Wall Street investing tens of billions of dollars into Netflix/Amazon to try to replace Hollywood), leading to what has been widely called a golden age of television. Consumers, just as they did in response to earlier advertising, gradually wise up to gimmicks when they seen them too often, and are increasingly cynical about “nudges”. Fake news, whatever contribution it did make to the 2016 US Presidential election, saw its viewership among Americans then crash 2016–2018 (and a disastrous 2018 mid-term election for the Republicans/Trump). Video and computer games, for all the moral panics over them, have proven to be mostly substitutes for other forms of socializing and media consumption, and the occasional “young man collapses dead while playing MMORPG/FPS/etc game” news report remains but a highly rare event, of no more consequence than “young man collapses dead when tackled in sports game” (and often perhaps for the same reason, congenital heart defects), with the various laws passed like curfews being largely unnecessary overreactions; Zynga, poster child of the new wave of exploitative games forecast to be a boot stomping on the wallet of humanity forever, has since reeled from FB changes & loss of most of its users, its 2018 stock now a quarter of its 2012 high; social games have taken over the gaming world in the form of “e-sports” competitive gaming leagues & professional players with their own stadiums, streaming, casual mobile gaming, and multiplayer games (bearing a deliberate and striking resemblance to regular sports, and a far cry from playing Super Mario Brothers by oneself on an NES). Media consumption often appears motivated far less by the entertainment or esthetic value of the media, than by the desire to participate in trends, signal affiliation with particular groups, or create common referents with other people—all of which inherently curtails media consumption because there is no point in too-obscure media or consuming too much, as that eliminates or crowds out the true function of the media consumption (one might say ‘entertainment’ gives itself far too much credit for being entertaining). Norms for social media are already evolving rapidly, with widespread awareness of the falsity of self-presentations on social media and counter-memes for reducing use, or at least containing the harm with methods like auto-deleting posts (eg. Snapchat). Porn and media are more accessible than ever, indeed, but nevertheless, access to them appears to have little to do with reproduction—American fertility rates are stable and appear far more affected by economic recessions & real estate prices & college attendance than by access to broadband. Likewise, the demographic transition worldwide appears linked mostly to female education, independent of pornography. This is despite the admittedly enormous time soaked up by media—peaking at 9 hours of TV per day per American household around 2009, and yet, people managed to hold down jobs and live their lives and do science and have children. Inherently, any new problem triggers responses and backlashes as people burn out, learn, and pass on knowledge of how to avoid the problems & use it healthily, the technology is modified, societal mechanisms like laws & regulation kick in, the new thing becomes integrated into existing social norms/rituals, and if nothing else, people adapt to it either by cultural inheritance (families/subgroups/ethnicities with adaptive memes flourish while others fall into decadence) or genetically (alcohol abuse may be an example).

Wild populations constantly increase in fitness (Burt1995, Hendry et al 2018), and larger selective pressures produce larger changes, as demonstrated by many successful artificial selection experiments. Further, there is both genetic & cultural evolution at work.

Heritability of Leisure-Time Activities & Media Consumption

MaTCH

The Polderman et al 2015 twin-study mega-meta-analysis of k = 2,748 studies picks up a few results relevant to the question of media/entertainment/leisure-time, with the most relevant categorization being “Recreation and Leisure”, but their online interface for visualization has no way to get the original studies rather than just the model-fitting & wordclouds AFAIK (considerably limiting MaTCH’s usefulness as a database to consult for meta-analyses about specific traits):

MaTCH (“Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations and Heritability”) database visualization of twin study results on traits classified under ICF/ICD10 subchapter “Recreation and Leisure”

MaTCH (“Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations and Heritability”) database visualization of twin study results on traits classified under ICF/ICD10 subchapter “Recreation and Leisure”

General Literature

For a more fine-grained description, I consulted my bibliographies and used a Google Scholar search along with followup searches of music heritable/game heritable, searches of reverse citation & “related articles” for a few key articles, and checking relevant-looking citations in the body of articles.

I looked primarily for heritability estimates of things which could be described as media or entertainment consumption patterns, media or esthetic preferences, leisure time activities, and the like. I exclude most studies of religiosity because while highly heritable & relevant, it’s arguably not perceived as optional or recreational by most people; I excluded many studies of musical pitch perception/tone identification because those reflect a basic musical aptitude which apparently is not even causally increased by musical practice4; I also exclude measures of vocational aptitude/interest (like the inventories collected in several large-scale twin registries) as those may reflect economic considerations & local opportunities & wishful dreaming more than actual life activities; for physical activity, I try to include only measures of voluntary/leisure rather than work-related or raw physical movement (eg. accelerometer logs, which would include things like fidgeting); similarly, I don’t try to comprehensively cover food preferences or eating habits (much less the vast literature on various kinds of drug consumption & abuse), even though those are arguably primarily recreational activities. Where multiple models fits are reported, I try to use the heritability from what the authors regard as the best-fitting model, and when a CE or E model is selected rather than ACE/DCE/DE, I report as 0.00, and I sum a2 and d2 if both are available; if only monozygotic & dizygotic twin correlations are reported, I (or another author) use the Falconer formula (2 × (rMZrDZ)).

The full table is available in the appendices due to length (>500 entries).

Looking over the table, we can see that the predictions are borne out: all sorts of preferences & activities are substantially heritable, and a good guess at a mean heritability would indeed be ~0.50 (a simple unweighted average of all the heritabilities in the table is ~0.30, dragged down by the especially high measurement error/instability of many Loehlin & Nichols1976 items).

Some of the heritabilities are estimated at 0.00 but looking at those, they tend to be small samples where the confidence intervals are wide (often the model-fitting gives up & settles on a simple E model for lack of data) or where the trait is probably not being measured well (indeed, probably most of the heritabilities have substantial measurement error as they are based on self-reports and single-item binary/Likert scale questionnaires), so their true heritabilities are almost certainly much higher; generally, only the exercise/sport-related heritabilities have adequate sample sizes because data is routinely collected on those for investigation into basic demographics like weight/BMI/health, while traits like bingo playing or TV watching are almost never measured. There is an unfortunate absence of any followups or investigations using modern molecular genetics, so there are no SNP heritabilities or polygenic scores to mention.5 Hopefully future studies will provide much more precise and broad estimates of these variables, such as using pedigrees extracted from social media—an example would be Facebook, where their researchers can easily extract large family pedigrees with rich detail on books/movies/etc, giving precise estimates of additive heritability & epistasis & estimating time trends, or even just directly extracting samples of tens of thousands of identical twins, and allow examination of other covariates to explain interests6

Other things I noticed looking through the studies were that dominance genetics are reported unusually often (perhaps related to the influence of personality on preferences/activities, as personality traits appear likely to be under balancing selection/frequency-dependent selection which would reduce additive genetics7), shared-environment effects show definite patterns of fadeout with age while heritability seems to increase with age and possibly peak in young adulthood (a Wilson effect?), and there may be sex-dependent effects where females have higher shared-environment and lower heritabilities than males (greater conformism/social concerns?).

Appendix

Literature Review

To demonstrate the point that there are pervasive genetic influences on all aspects of media consumption or leisure time activities/preferences/attitudes, I compile >580 heritability estimates from the behavioral genetics literature (drawing particularly on Loehlin & Nichols1976’s A Study of 850 Sets of Twins), roughly divided in ~13 categories.

Table of ~580 heritability estimates of human traits related to media consumption or leisure time activities/preferences/attitudes.

Category

Trait/measurement

h2

Study

Notes

Computer

“Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2” (GPIUS-2) total

0.00

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

“Problematic Internet Use Scale” (PIUS) total

0.42

Deryakulu & Ursavas2014, “Genetic and environmental influences on problematic internet use: A twin study”

Computer

Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

0.48

Vink et al 2015, “Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents”

Computer

GPIUS-2 subscale Mood regulation

0.33

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

GPIUS-2 subscale Negative outcomes

0.22

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

GPIUS-2 subscale Self-regulation

0.21

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

GPIUS-2 subscale Social interaction

0.00

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

IAT subscale Loss of control

0.16

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

IAT subscale Salient use

0.00

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

Internet social media use (all)

0.48

York 2017

Computer

Internet social media use (family)

0.30

York 2017

Computer

Internet social media use (friends)

0.61

York 2017, “A regression approach to testing genetic influence on communication behavior: Social media use as an example”

Computer

PIUS subscale “excessive use” of Internet

0.19

Deryakulu & Ursavas2014

Computer

PIUS subscale “negative consequences associated with Internet use”

0.86

Deryakulu & Ursavas2014

a2 = 0.00 + d2 = 0.864

Computer

PIUS subscale “social comfort/benefit” of Internet use

0.21

Deryakulu & Ursavas2014

Computer

Young’s “Internet Addiction Test” (IAT) total

0.00

Hahn et al 2017, “Internet addiction and its facets: The role of genetics and the relation to self-directedness”

Computer

Young’s “Internet Addiction Test” (IAT)

0.58

Li et al 2014, “A twin study of problematic internet use: its heritability and genetic association with effortful control”

Computer

Young’s “Internet Addiction Test” (IAT)

0.66

Li et al 2014

Computer

frequency of Internet use after 11PM

0.36

Long et al 2016

Computer

frequency of Internet use

0.41

Long et al 2016, “The genetic and environmental contributions to internet use and associations with psychopathology: A twin study”

Computer

hours of Internet use

0.10

Kirzinger et al 2012

Computer

time on educational Internet websites

0.34

Ayorech et al 2017, “Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use”

Computer

time on entertainment Internet websites

0.37

Ayorech et al 2017

Computer

time spent playing computer games on Internet

0.39

Ayorech et al 2017

Computer

time spent playing video games consoles

0.39

Hassan2023

Computer

time spent playing computer games

0.25

Hassan2023

Computer

time spent using Facebook on Internet

0.24

Ayorech et al 2017

Computer

total Internet time/Private Internet use

0.44

Hahn et al 2017

Computer

using the Internet primarily to access social networking sites

0.39

Long et al 2016

Computer

using the Internet to contact peers

0.00

Long et al 2016

Computer

hours of computer use

0.34

Kirzinger et al 2012, “Genetic and environmental influences on media use and communication behavior”

Computer

mobile phone use (yes/no)

0.49

Miller et al 2012, “The Heritability and Genetic Correlates of Mobile Phone Use: A Twin Study of Consumer Behavior”

Computer

phone talking frequency

0.59

Miller et al 2012

Computer

phone talking frequency

0.34

Miller et al 2012

Computer

phone texting frequency

0.53

Miller et al 2012

Computer

phone texting frequency

0.51

Miller et al 2012

Computer

Talked for over 30 minutes at a time on the telephone

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976, Heredity, Environment and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins

Objective Behavior Inventory, #191; for full details on all Loehlin & Nichols1976 calculation, see the appendix.

Computer

Placed a long distance call of over 500 miles

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #223

Music

LTI “Music and Artistic Activities”

0.51

Hur et al 1996

Music

LTI “The Arts”

0.62

Waller et al 1995, “Occupational and Leisure Time Interests, and Personality”

Note: Waller et al 1995 reports MZ/DZ correlations split by sex, MZA separately, and provides test-retest reliability for each subscale; I have combined the 3 groups into a single unattenuated heritability estimate. See the appendix for details.

Music

Interest factor

0.21

Coon & Carey1987, “Twins and musical ability: An analysis of if-then relationships (abstract)”/Coon & Carey1989, “Genetic and environmental determinants of musical ability in twins”

Coon & Carey1989 is a factor analysis of 27 items from the appendix of Loehlin & Nichols1977, most/all of which are included in this table as well on the item-level. (See also Hambrick & Tucker-Drob2015.)

Music

Interest factor

0.17

Coon & Carey1987

Music

School Performance factor

0.30

Coon & Carey1989

Music

School Performance factor

0.14

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Vocal Performance factor

0.71

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Vocal Performance factor

0.20

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Nonschool Performance factor

0.38

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Nonschool Performance factor

0.10

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Honors factor

0.38

Coon & Carey1989

Music

Honors factor

0.20

Coon & Carey1989

Music

music accomplishment

0.26

Hambrick & Tucker-Drob2015, “The genetics of music accomplishment: Evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction”

Like Coon & Carey1989, a re-analysis of Loehlin & Nichols1977 data.

Music

music practice

0.38

Hambrick & Tucker-Drob2015

Music

McGue Talent Inventory: Music

0.66

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a, “The Heritability of Aptitude and Exceptional Talent Across Different Domains in Adolescents and Young Adults”

Music

McGue Talent Inventory: Music

0.30

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Music

McGue Talent Inventory: Music (extreme response)

0.92

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a conducted a second set of heritabilities using an extremized dichotomization for respondents claiming top-end/exceptional aptitude/talent

Music

Participating in musical, dramatic or artistic activities

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #35

Music

One or more musical instruments

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #578

Music

Practiced on a musical instrument

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #133

Music

Played a musical instrument

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1029

Music

Hours of music practice, lifetime

0.41

Mosing et al 2014

See also Mosing et al 2015.

Music

Hours of music practice, lifetime

0.69

Mosing et al 2014

Music

Music achievement

0.57

Mosing et al 2015, “Did sexual selection shape human music? Testing predictions from the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution using a large genetically informative sample of over 10,000 twins” (Table S2)

Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ)8 (male)

Music

Music achievement

0.09

Mosing et al 2015

CAQ (female)

Music

Swedish Flow Proneness Questionnaire: Music Flow subscale

0.40

Butkovic et al 2015, “Personality related traits as predictors of music practice: Underlying environmental and genetic influences”

Music

Took voice lessons

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #137

Music

Number of years taking music lessons

0.60

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

Music

Current musical instrument playing/lessons

0.85

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

Music

Becoming an accomplished musician (performer or composer)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #390

Music

Gave a public recital (vocal, instrumental etc)

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #79

Music

Played a piano or other instrument while others were singing

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #84

Music

Sang in a church choir

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #105

Music

Sang in a school choir

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #106

Music

Sang in a small ensemble (trio, quartet, etc.)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #107

Music

Played in a dance or jazz band

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #205

Music

Played in a concert orchestra

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #300

Music

Performed with a professional orchestra

0.60

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1027

Music

Played in a school musical organization

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1028

Music

Played in a dance or jazz band for wages

0.54

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1030

Music

Received a rating of ‘Good’ or ‘Excellent’ in a: national music contest

0.68

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1032

Music

Received a rating of ‘Good’ or ‘Excellent’ in a: regional or state music contest

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1033

Music

Received a rating of ‘Good’ or ‘Excellent’ in a: city or county music contest

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1034

Music

Received a rating of ‘Good’ or ‘Excellent’ in a: school music contest

0.48

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1035

Music

Organized your own dance or jazz band

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1031

Music

Organized a singing group

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1036

Music

Conducted a choir, band or orchestra

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #136

Music

Directed (publicly) a band or orchestra

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1037

Music

Played in a marching band

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #307

Music

musical creativity (combined score)

0.84

Ukkola et al 2009, “Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes”

See also Ukkola-Vuoti et al 2011 whose pedigree statistics suggest heritability of listening to music at various ages, but doesn’t report heritabilities.

Music

musical creativity: composing

0.40

Ukkola et al 2009

Music

musical creativity: arranging

0.46

Ukkola et al 2009

Music

musical creativity: improvising

0.62

Ukkola et al 2009

Music

Composed music which has been given at least one public performance

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1026

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor A

0.41

Vandenberg1962, “The Hereditary Abilities Study: Hereditary Components in a Psychological Test Battery”

Factor B & E are not reported by Vandenberg1962 for unspecified reasons; the IPAT handbook is not available, but 2 Cattell papers (Cattell & Anderson1953/Cattell & Saunders1954) suggest to me that the factors are not simply musical genres.

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor C

0.31

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor D

0.49

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor F

0.24

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor G

0.27

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor H

0.00

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor I

0.34

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor J

0.38

Vandenberg1962

Music

IPAT Music Preference Test: factor K

0.11

Vandenberg1962

Music

computer music

0.26

Martin et al 1986

Music

loud music

0.11

Olson et al 2001

Music

jazz music

0.42

Simonson & Sela2011

Music

jazz music

0.45

Martin et al 1986

Music

Listened to modern (progressive) jazz

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #56

Music

Listened to New Orleans’ (Dixieland) jazz

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #57

Music

Listened to folk music

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #58

Music

Listened to classic or semi-classical music

0.40

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #267

Music

Listened to records in a store without buying

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #204

Music

Bought a folk music record

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #86

Music

Bought a popular or jazz record

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #109

Music

Bought a classical or semi-classical record

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #128

Music

A collection of classical records

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #585

Music

Attended an orchestra concert

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #148

Music

opera music

0.39

Simonson & Sela2011

Music

Listened to the radio

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #81

Music

Studied with the radio, record player, or TV on

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #319

Music

An FM radio

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #613

Music

A Hi-Fi or Stereo set

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #586

Music

Worked on Hi-Fi or radio equipment

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #303

Music

A tape recorder

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #600

Video

days per week with TV usage

0.24

Kirzinger et al 2012

Video

LTI “TV Viewing”

0.09

Hur et al 1996

Video

LTI “Passive Entertainment”

0.82

Waller et al 1995

Video

LTI “Police Calls-Fires”

0.61

Waller et al 1995

Video

TV viewing time

0.27

Plomin et al 1990, “Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture”

Video

TV viewing time

0.36

Plomin et al 1990

Video

TV viewing time

0.35

Plomin et al 1990

Video

Watching TV/TV viewing time

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #26

Video

hours of TV watching

0.36

Kirzinger et al 2012

Video

hours of TV watching

0.23

Kirzinger et al 2012

Video

passive activity (hours of TV/“sitting around doing nothing”/listening to music)

0.00

Haberstick et al 2014

Video

passive activity (hours of TV/“sitting around doing nothing”/listening to music)

0.35

Haberstick et al 2014

Video

hours of video watching

0.30

Kirzinger et al 2012

Video

Watched TV

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #171

Video

A TV set

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #615

Video

Daydreaming

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #32

Video

Fooling around, wasting time

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #37

Video

Spent an hour at a time daydreaming

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #325

Video

Attending movies and plays

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #27

Video

Went to the movies

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #154

Video

Saw a foreign movie

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #160

Video

Went to the movies alone

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #264

Video

A movie or slide projector

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #601

Video

X-rated movies

0.687

Hatemi et al 2010, “Not by Twins Alone: Using the Extended Family Design to Investigate Genetic Influence on Political Beliefs”

Table 3

Video

striptease shows

0.51

Martin et al 1986, “Transmission of social attitudes”

Table 19

Video

Attended a burlesque show

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #121

Video

Attended a professional stage play

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #156

Video

Attended a student stage play

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #165

Video

Attended a ballet performance

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #173

Video

Pin-ups

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #813

Video

Went to a night club with a floor show

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #143

Intellectual

Total Creative Achievement scale (TCA=ACA+SCA) of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ)

0.61

Piffer & Hur2014, “Heritability of Creative Achievement”

Based on Carson et al 2005. The CAQ might be taken as vocational assessment rather than leisure-time/hobbies, but as de Manzano & Ullén2018 point out, “The twin sample was fairly small—338 twins…Assuming the same prevalence as reported in Roeling et al 2017, this means that there would only have been around 9 professional artists included in the sample.”

Intellectual

Scientific Creative Achievement (SCA) CAQ subscale (scientific discovery/invention/culinary)

0.43

Piffer & Hur2014

Intellectual

Scientific Creative Achievement (SCA) CAQ subscale (scientific discovery/invention); extremized (maximal response across any domain)

0.68

de Manzano & Ullén2018, “Genetic and environmental influences on the phenotypic associations between intelligence, personality, and creative achievement in the arts and sciences”

Table S6

Intellectual

“Leisure-Time Interests” inventory (LTI): “Intellectual Activities”

0.57

Hur et al 1996, “Genetic and shared environmental influences on leisure-time interests in male adolescents”

Intellectual

LTI “Intellectual Interests”

0.76

Waller et al 1995

Intellectual

intellectual activity

0.40

Haberstick et al 2014

Intellectual

intellectual activity

0.16

Haberstick et al 2014

Intellectual

Intellectual Activities

0.47

McGue et al 2014

eg. “How often do you take a course or participate in study group? How often do you read a book, news magazine or technical report?”

Intellectual

Being read to by parents

0.81

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b, “Genetic influences on ‘environmental’ factors”

Intellectual

Reading books before age 12

0.72

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

a2 = 0 + d2 = 0.72

Intellectual

Reading books at/after age 13

0.72

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

a2 = 0 + d2 = 0.72

Intellectual

LTI “Reading”

0.75

Waller et al 1995

Intellectual

reading books

0.47

Olson et al 2001

a2 = 0.37 + d2 = 0.20

Intellectual

Reading for pleasure

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #24

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Writing

0.43

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Writing (extreme response)

0.83

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Language

0.71

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Language (extreme response)

0.50

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Mathematics

0.11

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

McGue Talent Inventory: Mathematics (extreme response)

0.87

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Intellectual

Made entries in a diary or journal

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #88

Intellectual

Worked on a scrap book

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #90

Intellectual

Bought a paper-back book

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #127

Intellectual

Sci-Fi

0.46

Simonson & Sela2011

Intellectual

Wrote articles for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #142

Intellectual

Read magazines at a newsstand without buying any

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #150

Intellectual

Read poetry that was not required reading

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #231

Intellectual

Wrote poetry on your own initiative

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #232

Intellectual

Looked something up in an encyclopedia

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #241

Intellectual

Read in bed before going to sleep

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #329

Intellectual

Practiced decorative or unusual handwriting

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #346

Intellectual

Looked up a word in the dictionary

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #363

Intellectual

Writing good fiction (poems, novels, short stories, etc.)

0.64

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #384

Intellectual

Being well read

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #385

Intellectual

Took a course over and above requirements

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #412

Intellectual

Read one or more non-fiction books that were not required reading

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #427

Intellectual

Read one or more novels that were not required

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #446

Intellectual

Read the biography of a famous person

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #454

Intellectual

Library of more than 200 books

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #577

Intellectual

A typewriter

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #603

Intellectual

An encyclopedia set

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #604

Intellectual

An unabridged dictionary

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #606

Intellectual

5 or more magazine subscriptions

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #607

Intellectual

A world atlas

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #608

Intellectual

Books in a foreign language

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #609

Intellectual

Maps

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #814

Intellectual

Quotations and mottoes

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #816

Intellectual

Diplomas

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #819

Intellectual

calendars or schedules

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #821

Intellectual

Medals

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #827

Intellectual

Biological charts

0.50

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #828

Intellectual

Flags

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #829

Intellectual

Had a paper published in a scientific journal

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1003

Intellectual

Won a prize for any other scientific work or study

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1011

Intellectual

Won a prize or award for a work published in a public newspaper or magazine

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1046

Intellectual

Edited a school paper or literary magazine

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1047

Intellectual

Won a literary award for creative writing

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1048

Intellectual

Had poems, stories, essays or articles published in a school publication

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1049

Intellectual

Wrote an original, but unpublished piece of creative writing on my own (not as part of a course)

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1050

Intellectual

Published one or more issues of my own newspaper

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1051

Intellectual

Had poems, stories or articles published in a public newspaper or magazine (not school)

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1052

Intellectual

Obtained a book or journal from the library

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #176

Intellectual

Read the Bible

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #177

Intellectual

Visited a museum

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #184

Intellectual

Participated in a science contest or talent search

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #298

Intellectual

Participated in a scientific contest or talent search

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1005

Intellectual

Did an independent, scientific experiment (not a course assignment)

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1000

Intellectual

Invented a patentable device

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1002

Intellectual

Gave a prepared talk to 15 or more people

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #80

Intellectual

Attended a public lecture (not for a course)

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #77

Intellectual

Entered a speech or debate contest

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #249

Intellectual

Participated in a debate or speech contest

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #305

Intellectual

Placed first, second or third in a: national speech or debate contest

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1012

Intellectual

Placed first, second or third in a: regional or state speech or debate contest

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1013

Intellectual

Placed first, second or third in a: city or county speech or debate contest

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1014

Intellectual

Placed first, second or third in a: school speech or debate contest

0.70

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1015

Intellectual

Tried to convince someone to change his (her) religious beliefs

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #344

Intellectual

LTI “Politics”

0.44

Waller et al 1995

Intellectual

Political interest (PI) at age 17

0.70

Kornadt et al 2018, “On the genetic and environmental sources of social and political participation in adolescence and early adulthood”

Intellectual

Political interest (PI) at age 23

0.67

Kornadt et al 2018

Intellectual

Tried to convince someone to change his (her) political or social beliefs

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #345

Intellectual

importance of news consumption

0.35

Kirzinger et al 2012

Intellectual

Read the editorial page of a newspaper

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #348

Intellectual

Keeping up to date with political affairs

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #392

Intellectual

Signed a petition

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #425

Intellectual

Wrote a ‘letter-to-the-editor’

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #227

Intellectual

Wrote a letter to a congressman

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #353

Intellectual

Talked in a language other than English

0.40

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #135

Intellectual

Tutored someone for money

0.58

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #140

Intellectual

Tutored someone for free

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #141

Intellectual

Bought or sold corporate stocks

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #242

Intellectual

Read the Stock Market quotations

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #359

Intellectual

Bought stamps for a stamp collection

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #194

Intellectual

Obtained the autograph of a famous person

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #332

Intellectual

Set up a schedule with specific times for various activities

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #431

Intellectual

The walls are blank (by choice)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #811

Intellectual

A telescope

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #595

Intellectual

Chemical laboratory equipment

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #597

Intellectual

Electronic laboratory equipment

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #598

Intellectual

Botany or zoology laboratory equipment

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #599

Intellectual

A barometer

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #612

Intellectual

A [hanging] mobile

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #815

Intellectual

Scientific models

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #817

Intellectual

Scholarship trophies

0.52

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #820

Intellectual

Built a piece of equipment or laboratory apparatus on my own (not course work)

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1004

Intellectual

Collected insect specimens

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #314

Intellectual

hybrid cars

0.37

Simonson & Sela2011

Intellectual

nudist camps

0.28

Martin et al 1986

Intellectual

self-denial

0.28

Martin et al 1986

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: Frequency of news use: “Local TV news”

0

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “News on comedy shows”

0.34

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Online news”

0.54

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Social media news”

0.15

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Mobile news use”

0.35

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Liberal news (MSNBC, CNN)”

0.59

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “NPR”

0.47

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Conservative news (FOX)”

0.58

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Conservative talk radio”

0.45

York & Haridakis2020

Intellectual

Frequency of news use: “Overall news Use”

0.35

York & Haridakis2020

Artistic

Artistic Creative Achievement (ACA) CAQ subscale (visual arts/music/creative writing/dance/drama/architecture/humor)

0.67

Piffer & Hur2014

Artistic

Artistic Creative Achievement (ACA) CAQ subscale (visual arts/music/creative writing/dance/drama); extremized

0.37

de Manzano & Ullén2018

Artistic

cultural activity personal goals

0.00

Salmela-Aro et al 2009

Artistic

McGue Talent Inventory: Arts

0.60

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Artistic

McGue Talent Inventory: Arts (extreme response)

0.56

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Artistic

Modern Art

0.46

Hatemi et al 2010

Artistic

Performed magic or card tricks

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #82

Artistic

Worked backstage on a play

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #114

Artistic

Read for a part in a high school or church play

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1021

Artistic

Read for a part in a play which was not sponsored by my school or church

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1022

Artistic

Acted in a play

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #275

Artistic

Had minor roles in one or more players

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1017

Artistic

Had a leading role in one or more plays

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1016

Artistic

Wrote a play

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1018

Artistic

Appeared on radio or TV as a performer

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1020

Artistic

Directed a play

0.88

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1019

Artistic

Some art supplies or equipment

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #579

Artistic

Reproductions of famous paintings

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #587

Artistic

Examples of original art work (paintings, sculpture, ceramics, etc.)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #588

Artistic

Abstract paintings

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #822

Artistic

Other paintings or drawings

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #823

Artistic

Sculpture

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #825

Artistic

Attended an art exhibition

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #271

Artistic

Produced a work of art (not for a course)

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #254

Artistic

Made your own Christmas cards

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #434

Artistic

Worked on a number painting

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #118

Artistic

Painted a picture (oil, watercolor, pastel, etc.)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #201

Artistic

Becoming accomplished in one of the performing arts (acting, dancing, etc.)

0.40

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #371

Artistic

Producing good artistic work (painting, sculpture, decorating, etc.)

0.52

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #389

Artistic

Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1038

Artistic

Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1039

Artistic

Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1040

Artistic

Exhibited a work of art (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1041

Artistic

Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A national art show

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1042

Artistic

Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A regional or state art show

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1043

Artistic

Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A city or county art show

0.52

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1044

Artistic

Won a prize or award for an artistic creation (painting, sculpture, etc.) at: A school art show

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1045

Religion

Religious Leisure Time Interests (LTI)

0.47

Waller et al 1990, “Genetic And Environmental Influences On Religious Interests, Attitudes, And Values: A Study Of Twins Reared Apart and Together”10

Religion

LTI “Religion”

0.66

Waller et al 1995

Religion

LTI “Religious Activities”

0.00

Hur et al 1996

Religion

Religious group attendance

0.046

Day et al 2018

SNP heritability.

Religion

Taught Sunday school

0.44

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #277

Religion

Religious articles

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #818

Religion

Discussed religion with friends

0.48

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #189

Religion

Attended a church or service of a religion other than your own

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #222

Religion

Attended a religious revival meeting

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #240

Appearance

Personal care (bathing, fixing hair, putting on make-up, etc)

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #33

Appearance

Used ‘Man-Tan’, ‘Tan-O-Rama’, ‘Q.T.’ or similar [tanning] products

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #69

Appearance

Polished your toenails

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #94

Appearance

Paid someone to polish your shoes

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #321

Appearance

Got a tattoo

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #429

Appearance

Cut your own hair

0.50

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #322

Appearance

Grew a beard

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #435

Appearance

Bleached or dyed your hair

0.44

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #436

Appearance

Wore a wig

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #437

Appearance

Changed your hair style

0.56

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #456

Appearance

Changed clothes during the day (exclude gyms or athletics)

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #101

Appearance

Tried on clothes in a store without buying anything

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #265

Appearance

Attended a fashion show

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #183

Appearance

Borrowed clothing from a friend

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #237

Appearance

Lent clothing to a friend

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #295

Appearance

Wore sun glasses after dark

0.50

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #244

Tourism

LTI “Foreign Travel”

0.21

Hur et al 1996

Tourism

LTI “Foreign Travel”

0.84

Waller et al 1995

Tourism

Visited a foreign country

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #443

Tourism

Went to a carnival, amusement park or circus

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #432

Tourism

Went on a vacation trip with friends your own age

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #447

Tourism

Drove a car

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #166

Tourism

Rode in a sports car

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #131

Tourism

Drive a car over 80MPH

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #64

Tourism

Flew in an airplane

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #182

Tourism

Went sightseeing

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #132

Tourism

Went window shopping

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #198

Tourism

Rode on a roller coaster, Ferris wheel, merry go round, or similar ride

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #317

Tourism

roller coaster rides

0.52

Olson et al 2001

Household/mechanical

LTI “Handicrafts”

0.38

Hur et al 1996

Household/mechanical

LTI “Husbandry”

0.84

Waller et al 1995

Household/mechanical

LTI “Domestic”

0.54

Waller et al 1995

Household/mechanical

Working on other projects or hobbies not directly related to course work or a job

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #36

Household/mechanical

Cleaned and dusted your room

0.92

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #112

Household/mechanical

Washed dishes

0.92

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #168

Household/mechanical

Took a bubble bath

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #347

Household/mechanical

Made minor repairs around the house

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #49

Household/mechanical

Washed and/or polished a car

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #361

Household/mechanical

Repaired or worked on a car

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #100

Household/mechanical

Customized a car

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #426

Household/mechanical

Mended clothing

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #282

Household/mechanical

Knitted

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #91

Household/mechanical

Made an article of clothing

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #92

Household/mechanical

Crocheted

0.54

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #138

Household/mechanical

A sewing machine

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #581

Household/mechanical

Leather working tools

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #602

Household/mechanical

Took photographs

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #144

Household/mechanical

Developed pictures (darkroom work)

0.66

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #155

Household/mechanical

Built or flew a model airplane

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #145

Household/mechanical

Painted a room or house

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #428

Household/mechanical

Carpentry tools (hand)

0.68

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #575

Household/mechanical

Power tools

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #576

Household/mechanical

Photographic equipment

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #582

Household/mechanical

A photographic dark room

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #583

Household/mechanical

Farm equipment

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #596

Household/mechanical

A flower or vegetable garden

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #592

Household/mechanical

Automotive tools or work shop

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #605

Household/mechanical

2 or more cars

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #614

Household/mechanical

Cared for tropical fish or goldfish

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #51

Household/mechanical

Cared for other pet animals

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #52

Household/mechanical

Cared for a potted plant

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #125

Household/mechanical

A pet dog or cat

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #593

Household/mechanical

A pet dog

0.57

Fall et al 2019

Female owners

Household/mechanical

A pet dog

0.51

Fall et al 2019

Male owners

Household/mechanical

“During the past 30 days, how often did you play with pets?”

0.37

Jacobson et al 2012

Household/mechanical

Other animal pets

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #594

Household/mechanical

Fed a stray dog or cat

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #360

Game

Playing games (cards, chess, etc.)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #38

Game

playing chess

0.38

Olson et al 2001

Game

Played chess

0.48

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #44

Game

McGue Talent Inventory: Chess

0.49

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

a2 = 0.01 + d2 = 0.48 = 0.49; Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a has no extreme response heritability for chess due to too few responses.

Game

Played charades

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #120

Game

Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hangman’s Noose, or similar games in class

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #96

Game

Played Monopoly, Scrabble, or similar games

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #296

Game

Played checkers

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #43

Game

crossword puzzles

0.45

Olson et al 2001, “The Heritability of Attitudes: A Study of Twins”

a2 = 0.02 + d2

Game

Worked crossword puzzles

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #169

Game

Played a pinball machine

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #269

Game

Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.)

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #202

Game

Played Solitaire

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #313

Game

LTI “Gambling”

0.39

Waller et al 1995

Game

Gambled with cards

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #61

Game

playing bingo

0.00

Olson et al 2001

Game

Played a slot machine

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #229

Game

Gambled with dice

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #62

Game

Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice)

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #119

Game

toy preference reaction times

0.31

Scarr1966, “Genetic Factors in Activity Motivation”

Game

toy preference reaction times

0.36

Scarr1966

Game

toy preference reaction times

0.36

Scarr1966

Game

toy preference reaction times

0.24

Scarr1966

Game

toy preference reaction times

0.26

Scarr1966

Game

preference for large variety of toys

0.40

Scarr1966

Food

milk chocolate

0.30

Simonson & Sela2011, “On the heritability of consumer decision making: An exploratory approach for studying genetic effects on judgment and choice”11

Food

dark chocolate

0.29

Simonson & Sela2011

Note: I include some food entries for amusement value, I did not attempt a comprehensive search of food preference literature; for a more comprehensive example, see Smith et al 201612.

Food

mustard

0.22

Simonson & Sela2011

Food

Cooked a complete meal

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #111

Food

Ate candy

0.78

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #315

Food

Ate 2 or more candy bars a day

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #339

Food

Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mixes)

0.52

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #243

Food

Chewed gum

0.66

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #129

Food

Ate a steak cooked rare

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #246

Food

Ate breakfast in bed (not as a patient)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #362

Food

A foreign cook book

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #589

Food

Ate Chinese food

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #206

Social

Social Activity scale

0.36

McGue & Christensen2007, “Social activity and healthy aging: A study of aging Danish twins”

Social

Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (RRPSP): Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.37

Knafo & Plomin2006, “Prosocial Behavior From Early to Middle Childhood: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Stability and Change”

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.47

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.52

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.62

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.72

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.26

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.30

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.51

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.60

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

RRPSP: Prosocial Behavior subscale

0.51

Knafo & Plomin2006

Social

LTI “Dating and Social Activities”

0.07

Hur et al 1996

Social

LTI “Socializing”

0.64

Waller et al 1995

Social

Social interest (SI) at age 17

0.33

Kornadt et al 2018

Additive+non-additive (a2 = 0.30 + i2 = 0.03)

Social

Social interest (SI) at age 23

0.42

Kornadt et al 2018

Additive+non-additive (a2 = 0.26 + i2 = 0.16)

Social

“Meetings of clubs and organizations”

0.55

Kendler1997, “Social Support: A Genetic-Epidemiologic Analysis”

a2 = 0.75 for “Social integration” factor, club/organization loading of 0.73, so 0.73 × 0.75 = 0.5475

Social

family activity

0.31

Haberstick et al 2014

Social

family activity

0.44

Haberstick et al 2014

Social

social activity

0.50

Haberstick et al 2014

Social

social activity

0.55

Haberstick et al 2014

Social

Social Activities

0.38

McGue et al 2014

eg. “How often do you visit family or friends at their home? How often do you participate in a party or other social event?”

Social

talking at parties

0.09

Kirzinger et al 2012

Social

pajama parties

0.08

Martin et al 1986

Social

relational/social aggression media preference

0.26

Jamnik & DiLalla2018

2 × (0.55 − 0.42)

Social

Picked-up a date in a bar, restaurant, or similar place

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #48

Social

Went to a party

0.54

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #60

Social

Stayed up all night

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #76

Social

Arranged a date for a friend

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #116

Social

Went to a party with a date

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #122

Social

Had a friend visit your home overnight

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #262

Social

Had a blind date

0.30

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #285

Social

Wore formal clothing (evening gown, tuxedo, dinner jacket, etc.)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #288

Social

Told a ‘dirty joke’ to male friends

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #289

Social

Told a ‘dirty joke’ to female friends

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #290

Social

Went on a double date

0.68

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #224

Social

Wrote a ‘love-letter’

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #225

Social

Dined by candle light

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #304

Social

Frequency of dates: Casual coke [soda], coffee or study dates per month

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Dating, #406

Social

Frequency of dates: Informal dates to movies, student gathers etc per month

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Dating, #407

Social

Frequency of dates: Formal dates to dances and big parties per month

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Dating, #408

Social

Had your back rubbed

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #250

Social

Became pinned [‘going steady’] or engaged

0.58

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #414

Social

Went to an overnight or week-end party

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #123

Social

Visited a friend’s home overnight

0.40

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #260

Social

Put up decorations for a party

0.44

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #172

Social

LTI “Swinging” [nightlife/dancing]

0.59

Waller et al 1995

Social

Danced the twist

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #178

Social

Attended a formal dance

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #149

Social

Did an imitation or impersonation of another person

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #218

Social

Made a new friend

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #349

Social

Turned down an invitation for a date

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #357

Social

Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M.

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #358

Social

Discussed how to make money with friends

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #55

Social

Discussed school subjects with friends

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #63

Social

Wrote letters to friends your own age

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #197

Social

Photographs of friends

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #824

Social

Did voluntary work for a hospital or service organization (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.)

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #115

Social

Baby sat

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #102

Social

Performed [fraternity] pledge-duties

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #103

Social

Attending club or organizational activities (meetings, [fraternity] pledge-duties, etc)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #34

Social

Pub or social club attendance

0.04

Day et al 2018

SNP heritability. Day et al 2018 gives a range 0.034–0.046 for the 3 social phenotypes, but omits the pub/social-club SNP heritability aside from implying it falls within that range.

Social

Worked for a club or organization

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #151

Social

Solicited advertising for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #157

Social

Participated in a student demonstration (strike, water-fight, etc.)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #147

Social

Visited a person in a hospital

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #175

Social

Participated in a wedding (usher, bridesmaid, etc.)

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #193

Social

Pushed a stalled car (other than your own)

0.02

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #266

Social

Becoming a community leader

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #377

Social

Donated money to a charity

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #417

Social

Political participation (POP) at age 17

0.25

Kornadt et al 2018

Social

Political participation (POP) at age 23

0.46

Kornadt et al 2018

Social

Worked for the election of a political party or candidate

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #418

Social

Contributed money to a political party or candidate

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #419

Social

Organized a school political group or campaign

0.42

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1023

Social

Organized my own business or service

0.74

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1024

Social

Received a Junior Achievement award

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Honors, #1025

Social

Donated blood

0.72

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Done During Past Year, #449

Social

Was consulted for help or advice by someone with a personal problem

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #210

Social

Wrote a letter to a ‘pen-pal’ whom you have never met in person

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #217

Social

Visited a relative’s home overnight

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #261

Social

Started a conversation with strangers

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #263

Social

Tried to hypnotize someone

0.48

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #276

Social

Told jokes

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #203

Social

Jokes

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #826

Social

Played a practical joke on someone

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #70

Social

Confused people by pretending to be your twin

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #365

Athletic

Attended athletic events

0.78

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #117

Athletic

Watching sports events

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #28

Athletic

Participating in sports and practice sessions

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Time Diary, #39

Athletic

sports club or gym attendance

0.03

Day et al 2018, “Elucidating the genetic basis of social interaction and isolation”

SNP heritability (see GCTA); interpretation is complicated by this being a single-item measure of entirely unknown reliability in the older UK Biobank cohort, so it’s unclear if the heritability is so low due to measurement error, if additive SNP heritability simply is that low and only a small part of narrow or broad-sense heritability.

Athletic

Number of years sport participation

0.48

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

Athletic

Number of years sport competition

0.51

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

Athletic

Current sports participation

0.29

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009b

Athletic

Attended a professional prize fight or wrestling match

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #181

Athletic

Discussed sports with friends

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #283

Athletic

Took exercises

0.80

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #355

Athletic

Becoming an outstanding athlete

0.40

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #375

Athletic

Keeping in good physical condition

0.14

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #388

Athletic

Engaging in exciting and stimulating activities

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Life Goals, #400

Athletic

Sports equipment

0.36

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #580

Athletic

Pennants

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #812

Athletic

Sports trophies

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #830

Athletic

Sports equipment

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In Room, #831

Athletic

physical aggression media preference

0.02

Jamnik & DiLalla2018, “A Multimethodological Study of Preschoolers’ Preferences for Aggressive Television and Video Games”

2 × (0.40 − 0.39)

Athletic

preference for physically active games

0.00

Scarr1966

Athletic

enjoyment of high impact activity

0.85

Fisher et al 2010

Athletic

enjoyment of leisure time physical activity

0.33

Aaltonen et al 2016, “Genetic architecture of motives for leisure-time physical activity: a twin study”

Athletic

enjoyment of leisure time physical activity

0.53

Aaltonen et al 2016

Athletic

enjoyment of low impact activity

0.74

Fisher et al 2010, “Environmental influences on children’s physical activity: Quantitative estimates using a twin design”

Athletic

enjoyment of medium impact activity

0.80

Fisher et al 2010

Athletic

(lack of) enjoyment of exercise

0.47

Huppertz et al 2014, “A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior”

Athletic

(lack of) enjoyment of exercise

0.44

Huppertz et al 2014

Athletic

exercise

0.00

Pérusse et al 1989, “Genetic And Environmental Influences On Level Of Habitual Physical Activity And Exercise Participation”

Athletic

exercise

0.23

Stubbe et al 2006, “Genetic influences on exercise participation in 37,051 twin pairs from 7 countries”13

Athletic

exercise

0.31

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.44

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.50

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.56

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.68

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.50

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.37

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.57

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.64

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.60

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.71

Stubbe et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.24

Simonen et al 2004, “Multivariate genetic analysis of lifetime exercise and environmental factors”

Athletic

exercise

0.24

Huppertz et al 2012, “The impact of shared environmental factors on exercise behavior from age 7 to 12”

Athletic

exercise

0.22

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.66

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.16

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.80

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.15

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.38

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.36

Huppertz et al 2012

Athletic

exercise

0.42

de Moor et al 2011, “Exercise participation in adolescents and their parents: Evidence for genetic and generation specific environmental effects”

Athletic

exercise

0.45

Duncan et al 2008, “Unique environmental effects on physical activity participation: a twin study”

Athletic

exercise

0.00

Duncan et al 2008

Athletic

exercise

0.50

Huppertz et al 2014

Athletic

exercise

0.43

Huppertz et al 2014

Athletic

exercise

0.64

Carlsson et al 2006, “Genetic effects on physical activity: Results from the Swedish twin registry”

Athletic

exercise

0.40

Carlsson et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.51

Carlsson et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.41

Carlsson et al 2006

Athletic

exercise

0.85

van der Aa et al 2010, “Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence”

Athletic

exercise

0.38

van der Aa et al 2010

Athletic

exercise

0.80

van der Aa et al 2010

Athletic

exercise

0.80

van der Aa et al 2010

Athletic

exercise

0.72

van der Aa et al 2010

Athletic

exercise

0.72

van der Aa et al 2010

Athletic

exercise

0.36

Olson et al 2001

Athletic

exercise behavior

0.67

Schutte et al 2018, “A twin study on the correlates of voluntary exercise behavior in adolescence”

Athletic

jogging/running >10 miles/week

0.53

Lauderdale1997

Athletic

any vigorous exercise in past 2 weeks

0.39

Heller et al 1988, “Lifestyle factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins”

Athletic

leisure physical activity volume ≥2 MET-hours/day

0.45

Kujala et al 2002

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.62

Kaprio et al 1981, “Cigarette smoking, use of alcohol, and leisure-time physical activity among same-sexed adult male twins”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity (all)

0.55

Eriksson et al 2006, “Genetic factors in physical activity and the equal environment assumption—the Swedish Young Male Twins Study”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity (non-sports)

0.40

Eriksson et al 2006

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.07

Haberstick et al 2014, “Genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of adolescent leisure time activities”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.54

Haberstick et al 2014

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.41

Mustelin et al 2012, “Genetic influences on physical activity in young adults: a twin study”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.47

Aaltonen et al 2010, “A Longitudinal Study on Genetic and Environmental Influences on Leisure Time Physical Activity in the Finnish Twin Cohort”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.42

Aaltonen et al 2010

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.38

Aaltonen et al 2010

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.31

Aaltonen et al 2010

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.52

Aaltonen et al 2013, “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Longitudinal Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood”

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.52

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.44

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.50

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.46

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.51

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.34

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.31

Aaltonen et al 2013

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.63

Maia et al 2002

Athletic

leisure time physical activity

0.32

Maia et al 2002

Athletic

leisure-time physical activity

0.54

Aarnio et al 1997, “Familial aggregation of leisure-time physical activity: A 3 generation study”

As quoted in Stubbe & de Geus 2009, where they note they calculated the heritability from the raw correlations reported in Aarnio et al 1997.

Athletic

leisure-time physical activity

0.46

Aarnio et al 1997

As quoted in Stubbe & de Geus2009 etc.

Athletic

Physical Activities

0.45

McGue et al 2014, “The nature of behavioral correlates of healthy ageing: a twin study of lifestyle in mid to late life”

eg. “How often do you run, work out, do aerobics? How often do you cycle at least 3 km?”

Athletic

Physical activity

0.78

Gao et al 2019

Athletic

Physical activity

0.59

Gao et al 2019

Athletic

Sedentary behavior

0.68

Gao et al 2019, “The Chinese National Twin Registry: a ‘gold mine’ for scientific research” (previously reported in a Chinese-language study, Zhang et al 2014, “A twin study in Qingdao and Lishui: heritability of exercise participation and sedentary behavior”)

Athletic

Sedentary behavior

0.32

Gao et al 2019

Athletic

low/medium/high impact activity preference

0.60

Fisher et al 2010

Athletic

moderate leisure-time physical activity

0.38

Lauderdale1997, “Familial determinants of moderate and intense physical activity: a twin study”

Athletic

physical activity personal goals

0.00

Salmela-Aro et al 2009, “Personal Goals of Older Female Twins: Genetic and Environmental Effects”

Athletic

play strenuous non-racquet sports >5 hours/week

0.30

Lauderdale1997

Athletic

play strenuous racquet sports >5 hours/week

0.48

Lauderdale1997

Athletic

playing organized sports

0.52

Olson et al 2001

a2 = 0.00 + d2 = 0.52

Athletic

Went horseback riding

0.34

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #45

Athletic

Took horseback riding lessons

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #110

Athletic

Attended a horse race

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #162

Athletic

Played polo (indoor or outdoor)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #272

Athletic

Rode a horse

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #331

Athletic

ride a bicycle >50 miles/week

0.58

Lauderdale1997

Athletic

Rode a bicycle

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #161

Athletic

Rode a motorcycle

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #59

Athletic

Participated in a drag race

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #180

Athletic

A motor boat or sail boat

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #590

Athletic

A motorcycle or motorbike

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #591

Athletic

McGue Talent Inventory: Sports

0.64

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Athletic

McGue Talent Inventory: Sports

0.29

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Athletic

McGue Talent Inventory: Sports (extreme response)

0.85

Vinkhuyzen et al 2009a

Athletic

sports

0.44

Olson et al 2001

Athletic

sports

0.00

Stubbe et al 2005, “Sports participation during adolescence: A shift from environmental to genetic factors”

Athletic

sports

0.00

Stubbe et al 2005

Athletic

sports

0.36

Stubbe et al 2005

Athletic

sports

0.85

Stubbe et al 2005

Athletic

sports

0.35

Boomsma et al 1989, “Resemblances of parents and twins in sports participation and heart rate”

Athletic

sports

0.77

Boomsma et al 1989

Athletic

sports

0.48

Koopmans et al 1994, “Smoking and sports in participation”

Athletic

sports

0.52

Frederiksen & Christensen2003, “The influence of genetic factors on physical functioning and exercise in second half of life”

d2

Athletic

sports

0.54

Beunen & Thomis1999, “Genetic determinants of sports participation and daily physical activity”

Athletic

sports

0.83

Beunen & Thomis1999

Athletic

sports

0.56

Eriksson et al 2006

Athletic

sports

0.64

Mustelin et al 2012

Athletic

sports

0.68

Maia et al 2002, “Genetic factors in physical activity levels: A twin study”

Athletic

sports

0.40

Maia et al 2002

Athletic

sports

0.81

Simonen et al 2004

Athletic

LTI “Sports”

0.53

Hur et al 1996

Athletic

LTI “Fitness”

0.78

Waller et al 1995

Athletic

LTI “Sports Fan”

0.51

Waller et al 1995

Athletic

LTI “Danger Seeking” [extreme sports]

0.57

Waller et al 1995

Athletic

swim >2 miles/week

0.08

Lauderdale1997

Athletic

Went ice skating

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #46

Athletic

Went swimming

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #158

Athletic

Went skin diving

0.46

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #270

Athletic

Dove from a diving board or tower more than 6 feet above the water

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #335

Athletic

Went fishing

0.04

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #309

Athletic

Went boating

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #167

Athletic

Went water skiing or surf board riding

0.08

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #73

Athletic

Went skiing

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #74

Athletic

Participated in crew events (sculls, pairs, fours, etc.)

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #75

Athletic

vigorous leisure-time physical activity

0.55

Kujala et al 2002, “Modifiable risk factors as predictors of all-cause mortality: The roles of genetics and childhood environment”

Athletic

LTI “Hunting and Outdoor Activities”

0.37

Hur et al 1996

Athletic

LTI “Hunting-Fishing”

0.53

Waller et al 1995

Athletic

Went hunting

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #188

Athletic

Fishing or hunting equipment

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #584

Athletic

Went skeet or trapshooting

0.64

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #273

Athletic

Bowled

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #153

Athletic

Went roller skating

0.16

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #47

Athletic

Played golf

0.12

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #71

Athletic

Took golf lessons

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #108

Athletic

Ran track (dashes, hurdles, distance, etc)

0.20

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #72

Athletic

Participated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.)

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #159

Athletic

Took dancing lessons

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #98

Athletic

Went social (ballroom) dancing

0.38

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #93

Athletic

Went square dancing

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #124

Athletic

Played football (touch or tackle)

0.22

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #152

Athletic

Played tennis

0.26

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #163

Athletic

Played table tennis or ping-pong

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #302

Athletic

Played baseball or softball

0.32

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #185

Athletic

Played basketball

0.54

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #281

Athletic

Played soccer

0.18

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #306

Athletic

LTI “Sierra Club”

0.68

Waller et al 1995

Athletic

Went on a camping trip

0.10

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #186

Athletic

A tent or sleeping bag

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #611

Athletic

Twirled a baton

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #196

Athletic

A stop watch

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Items In The Home, #610

Athletic

Jumped in a parachute

0.00

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #336

Athletic

Lifted weights

0.06

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #301

Athletic

Led a cheering section

0.24

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #311

Athletic

Took a long walk alone

0.28

Loehlin & Nichols1976

Objective Behavior Inventory, #352

Loehlin & Nichols1976: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins

A discussion of extracting ~376 behavioral items relating to recreation/leisure from Loehlin & Nichols1976: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins, which reports comprehensive summary statistic twin correlations from an early large-scale twin study (canvassed via the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test, 1962). I transcribe them from the book, pool the weighted correlations by gender, and compute simple heritability estimates by Falconer’s formula for use in the recreation/leisure heritability literature review.

Loehlin & Nichols1976’s Heredity, Environment and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins (see also the briefer discussion in Heredity and Environment: Major Findings from Twin Studies of Ability, Personality, and Interests, Nichols1976/197914) is a twin study which attempted to compile a relatively large-scale twin sample by an extensive mail survey of the n = 1507 11th-grade adolescent pairs of participants in the high school National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test of 1962 (total n ~ 600,000) who indicated they were twins (as well as a control sample of non-twins), yielding 514 identical twin & 336 (same-sex) fraternal twin pairs; they were questioned as follows:

…to these [participants] were mailed a battery of personality and interest tests, including the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), an experimental Objective Behavior Inventory (OBI), an Adjective Check List (ACL), and a number of other, briefer self-rating scales, attitude measures, and other items. In addition, a parent was asked to fill out a questionnaire describing the early experiences and home environment of the twins. Other brief questionnaires were sent to teachers and friends, asking them to rate the twins on a number of personality traits; because these ratings were available for only part of our basic sample, they have not been analyzed in detail and will not be discussed further in this book. (The parent and twin questionnaires, except for the CPI, are reproduced in Appendix A.)

Many of the questions asked about recreation & leisure, including hobbies, preferences, honors/achievements, and items available in their house (most of which would be useful for hobbies or non-school-work); Loehlin & Nichols 1976 has been cited by eg. Plomin et al 1990 for the TV watching time use item demonstrating heritability of TV viewing, but most or all of the other items have not been cited much (if at all). The 2 exceptions appear to be the re-analyses Coon & Carey1989, and Hambrick & Tucker-Drob2015.

Unusually, the book includes twin-pair correlations for all of the reported items, not just full test-scales or subfactors, so it’s possible to extract all relevant-looking items and run Falconer on them to go far beyond just TV watching. I have done so below for ~376 items, skipping Vocational Preference Inventory, obligatory religious questions, some dating questions that seem to reflect other parties’ actions rather than preferences/activities, “Ideal Self” preferences, and most school-related or misbehavior questions. Because the respondent sample sizes are not always balanced by gender, I combine male/female correlations before estimating heritability, by transforming them into Fisher’s Z and then taking an average of the 2 correlations weighted by respondent n; results are rounded to 2 digits and floored at 0.

In interpreting the results, it’s worth remembering that single-item responses have severe measurement error and many of the items exemplify this by being extremely specific or suffering from dichotomizing or range restriction and floor/ceiling/sex differences even though most of them have high response rates and superficially seem like large n: for example, in the entire sample of ~1700 respondents, only around 2 total have ever engaged in skydiving (unsurprising given the era & parents not generally endorsing that activity); only 1 twin managed to publish a scientific paper; 0 twins report getting a tattoo in the past year; 0 twins report national debate successes or inventing a patentable device; while in the other direction, ~96% report having a TV in the house and ~99.9% report ever using a dictionary; and it is not surprising that only a handful of twins have engaged in stock trading (or read the stock listings regularly), have attended prize fights, or that female twins never report growing beards in the past year. (And others are obsolete: teenagers are no longer “pinned” or go for “casual cokes”, and I have never pushed a stalled car to get it started in my life nor seen anyone do so, although it’s interesting to note that apparently almost as many households had sewing machines as had TVs but only ~25% had tape recorders). Since there is no variance or only a little variance, the heritability estimates will be 0 or will be extremely imprecise and could take on any value 0–1.

Some of these are rare for anyone, others are asked prematurely; but of course, we know that something like dictionary use would be heritable if we measured it better in terms of something like “number of dictionary uses per year”, or that publishing scientific papers or attending burlesque shows would be more easily shown to be heritable if the question was asked of the high schoolers a decade or 2 later, and TV ownership will probably be more heritable now that it is rarer. I could have tried to exclude any items which didn’t have a reasonable number of mean affirmative responses like 50, but that would risk cherrypicking, so I include all entries which I initially selected as relevant while reading the questionnaires and then transcribed the raw numbers for.

Entries are categorized by the survey instrument, and presented in the same order as in the Loehlin & Nichols1976 appendix; n refers to respondents, not how many endorse an item (which occasionally is as low as 0).

Recreation or leisure-time item-responses extracted from Loehlin & Nichols1976, A Study of 850 Sets of Twins.

Category

ID

Item

Identical Male r

Identical Female r

Fraternal Male r

Fraternal Female r

Identical Male n

Identical Female n

Fraternal Male n

Fraternal Female n

Identical r

Fraternal r

h2

Time Diary

24

Reading for pleasure

0.11

0.28

0.03

0.28

209

285

129

192

0.21

0.18

0.06

Time Diary

26

Watching TV

0.38

0.57

0.32

0.42

207

284

131

192

0.5

0.38

0.24

Time Diary

27

Attending movies and plays

0.01

0.43

0.13

0.47

201

281

128

186

0.27

0.34

0

Time Diary

28

Watching sports events

0.19

0.52

0.52

0.46

203

276

129

181

0.39

0.49

0

Time Diary

32

Daydreaming

0.04

0.19

0

0.51

198

275

123

182

0.13

0.32

0

Time Diary

33

Personal care (bathing, fixing hair, putting on make-up, etc)

0.13

0.2

−0.03

0.22

208

286

129

188

0.17

0.12

0.1

Time Diary

34

Attending club or organizational activities (meetings, [fraternity] pledge-duties, etc)

0.08

0.4

0.08

0.45

196

279

127

184

0.27

0.31

0

Time Diary

35

Participating in musical, dramatic or artistic activities

0.24

0.53

0.28

0.41

194

264

122

182

0.42

0.36

0.12

Time Diary

36

Working on other projects or hobbies not directly related to course work or a job

0.1

0.38

0.04

0.14

197

271

127

180

0.27

0.1

0.34

Time Diary

37

Fooling around, wasting time

0.08

0.49

0.07

0.38

199

278

123

185

0.33

0.26

0.14

Time Diary

38

Playing games (cards, chess, etc.)

0.02

0.42

0.21

0.29

197

271

124

178

0.26

0.26

0

Time Diary

39

Participating in sports and practice sessions

0.47

0.52

0.37

0.32

202

269

128

180

0.5

0.34

0.32

Objective Behavior Inventory

43

Played checkers

0.4

0.4

0.21

0.35

215

292

135

195

0.4

0.29

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

44

Played chess

0.61

0.66

0.32

0.46

215

292

135

195

0.64

0.4

0.48

Objective Behavior Inventory

45

Went horseback riding

0.62

0.65

0.43

0.5

215

291

134

195

0.64

0.47

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

46

Went ice skating

0.71

0.65

0.49

0.57

215

292

135

195

0.68

0.54

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

47

Went roller skating

0.58

0.55

0.49

0.48

214

292

134

195

0.56

0.48

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

48

Picked-up a date in a bar, restaurant, or similar place

0.25

0.41

0.15

0.45

213

292

135

193

0.34

0.33

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

49

Made minor repairs around the house

0.34

0.21

0.1

0.27

214

290

134

192

0.27

0.2

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

51

Cared for tropical fish or goldfish

0.41

0.47

0.27

0.58

215

290

135

194

0.44

0.47

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

52

Cared for other pet animals

0.74

0.65

0.63

0.64

213

290

134

194

0.69

0.64

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

55

Discussed how to make money with friends

0.29

0.25

0.04

0.13

215

292

135

193

0.27

0.09

0.36

Objective Behavior Inventory

56

Listened to modern (progressive) jazz

0.19

0.37

0.14

0.3

215

291

135

195

0.3

0.24

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

57

Listened to New Orleans’ (Dixieland) jazz

0.23

0.28

0.15

0.17

215

292

135

195

0.26

0.16

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

58

Listened to folk music

0.38

0.25

0.27

0.25

215

292

135

195

0.31

0.26

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

59

Rode a motorcycle

0.17

0.49

0.29

0.31

214

292

134

195

0.36

0.3

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

60

Went to a party

0.42

0.35

0.3

−0.02

214

291

135

194

0.38

0.11

0.54

Objective Behavior Inventory

61

Gambled with cards

0.53

0.51

0.31

0.42

215

292

135

195

0.52

0.38

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

62

Gambled with dice

0.37

0.27

0.43

0.23

215

292

134

195

0.31

0.32

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

63

Discussed school subjects with friends

0

−0.01

−0.01

0

215

291

134

195

−0.01

0

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

64

Drive a car over 80MPH

0.57

0.51

0.49

0.28

215

291

134

195

0.54

0.37

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

69

Used ‘Man-Tan’, ‘Tan-O-Rama’, ‘Q.T.’ or similar [tanning] products

0.34

0.48

0.33

0.44

213

292

134

193

0.42

0.4

0.04

Objective Behavior Inventory

70

Played a practical joke on someone

0.33

0.42

0.28

0.23

214

290

134

195

0.38

0.25

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

71

Played golf

0.53

0.55

0.58

0.4

214

290

135

195

0.54

0.48

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

72

Ran track (dashes, hurdles, distance, etc)

0.51

0.55

0.32

0.5

214

289

135

194

0.53

0.43

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

73

Went water skiing or surf board riding

0.61

0.64

0.5

0.65

215

291

134

195

0.63

0.59

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

74

Went skiing

0.5

0.65

0.31

0.69

214

291

133

195

0.59

0.56

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

75

Participated in crew events (sculls, pairs, fours, etc.)

0.35

0.18

0.25

0.34

213

289

129

190

0.25

0.3

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

76

Stayed up all night

0.36

0.51

0.31

0.38

214

292

134

195

0.45

0.35

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

77

Attended a public lecture (not for a course)

0.3

0.47

0.2

0.24

215

288

133

194

0.4

0.22

0.36

Objective Behavior Inventory

79

Gave a public recital (vocal, instrumental etc)

0.29

0.4

0.21

0.3

215

289

134

194

0.35

0.26

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

80

Gave a prepared talk to 15 or more people

0.3

0.26

0.25

0.22

215

292

135

195

0.28

0.23

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

81

Listened to the radio

0

0

−0.01

−0.01

213

292

135

195

0

−0.01

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

82

Performed magic or card tricks

0.28

0.36

0.21

0.23

215

291

134

194

0.33

0.22

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

84

Played a piano or other instrument while others were singing

0.43

0.54

0.45

0.41

214

292

134

193

0.5

0.43

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

86

Bought a folk music record

0.53

0.6

0.3

0.6

215

292

134

194

0.57

0.49

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

88

Made entries in a diary or journal

0.11

0.5

0.11

0.24

215

292

135

195

0.35

0.19

0.32

Objective Behavior Inventory

90

Worked on a scrap book

0.46

0.45

0.28

0.3

215

291

135

194

0.45

0.29

0.32

Objective Behavior Inventory

91

Knitted

−0.01

0.58

−0.02

0.37

213

290

135

194

0.36

0.22

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

92

Made an article of clothing

−0.01

0.54

−0.01

0.4

215

290

134

194

0.33

0.24

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

93

Went social (ballroom) dancing

0.39

0.44

0.05

0.35

214

289

135

190

0.42

0.23

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

94

Polished your toenails

0.3

0.48

0.28

0.44

215

292

135

194

0.41

0.38

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

96

Played Tic-Tac-Toe, Hangman’s Noose, or similar games in class

0.21

0.32

0.12

0.2

215

291

135

193

0.27

0.17

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

98

Took dancing lessons

0.51

0.33

0.18

0.37

215

291

135

194

0.41

0.29

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

100

Repaired or worked on a car

0.52

0.26

0.31

0.36

215

291

135

194

0.38

0.34

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

101

Changed clothes during the day (exclude gyms or athletics)

0.14

0.24

0.15

0.09

215

292

135

195

0.2

0.11

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

102

Baby sat

0.62

0.6

0.51

0.46

215

292

135

194

0.61

0.48

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

103

Performed [fraternity] pledge-duties

0.31

0.37

0.04

0.39

212

282

133

190

0.34

0.25

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

105

Sang in a church choir

0.68

0.71

0.53

0.65

215

291

135

195

0.7

0.6

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

106

Sang in a school choir

0.71

0.75

0.49

0.61

214

292

134

194

0.73

0.56

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

107

Sang in a small ensemble (trio, quartet, etc.)

0.65

0.55

0.35

0.53

215

292

135

195

0.59

0.46

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

108

Took golf lessons

0.15

0.61

0.48

0.42

215

291

135

195

0.44

0.45

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

109

Bought a popular or jazz record

0.57

0.48

0.43

0.4

215

291

135

194

0.52

0.41

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

110

Took horseback riding lessons

0.39

0.34

0.65

0.26

215

292

135

195

0.36

0.44

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

111

Cooked a complete meal

0.32

0.35

0.35

0.32

215

292

135

195

0.34

0.33

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

112

Cleaned and dusted your room

0.45

0.66

0.28

0

215

291

135

195

0.58

0.12

0.92

Objective Behavior Inventory

114

Worked backstage on a play

0.37

0.57

0.29

0.4

214

292

135

195

0.49

0.36

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

115

Did voluntary work for a hospital or service organization (Red Cross, Heart Fund, etc.)

0.29

0.52

0.31

0.3

215

292

135

194

0.43

0.3

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

116

Arranged a date for a friend

0.42

0.55

0.38

0.47

215

291

135

193

0.5

0.43

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

117

Attended athletic events

0.33

0.38

−0.03

−0.03

215

292

135

195

0.36

−0.03

0.78

Objective Behavior Inventory

118

Worked on a number painting

0.24

0.52

0.12

0.33

215

292

133

195

0.41

0.25

0.32

Objective Behavior Inventory

119

Made bets on a game or other event (not cards or dice)

0.45

0.21

0.43

0.14

215

291

135

195

0.32

0.26

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

120

Played charades

0.48

0.36

0.44

0.42

214

289

134

194

0.41

0.43

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

121

Attended a burlesque show

0.63

−0.01

0.43

0.59

215

292

135

195

0.3

0.53

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

122

Went to a party with a date

0.49

0.63

0.47

0.42

215

290

134

195

0.57

0.44

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

123

Went to an overnight or week-end party

0.31

0.47

0.26

0.32

213

291

135

194

0.41

0.3

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

124

Went square dancing

0.57

0.47

0.58

0.49

215

292

135

195

0.51

0.53

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

125

Cared for a potted plant

0.2

0.47

0.24

0.21

215

290

134

194

0.36

0.22

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

127

Bought a paper-back book

0.33

0.59

0.38

0.44

213

292

134

195

0.49

0.42

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

128

Bought a classical or semi-classical record

0.33

0.5

0.13

0.48

215

291

135

195

0.43

0.35

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

129

Chewed gum

0.37

0.32

0.08

−0.04

215

292

135

195

0.34

0.01

0.66

Objective Behavior Inventory

131

Rode in a sports car

0.36

0.54

0.3

0.5

215

292

135

195

0.47

0.42

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

132

Went sightseeing

0.3

0.36

0.36

0.18

215

291

135

195

0.33

0.26

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

133

Practiced on a musical instrument

0.56

0.62

0.4

0.5

215

292

135

195

0.6

0.46

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

135

Talked in a language other than English

0.49

0.56

0.32

0.34

215

292

135

194

0.53

0.33

0.4

Objective Behavior Inventory

136

Conducted a choir, band or orchestra

0.3

0.36

0.4

0.32

215

292

135

195

0.33

0.35

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

137

Took voice lessons

−0.03

0.5

−0.01

0.56

215

292

135

195

0.29

0.35

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

138

Crocheted

0.2

0.49

−0.03

0.2

214

290

132

195

0.38

0.11

0.54

Objective Behavior Inventory

140

Tutored someone for money

0.35

0.48

0.36

−0.02

215

292

135

195

0.43

0.14

0.58

Objective Behavior Inventory

141

Tutored someone for free

0.31

0.52

0.12

0.27

212

291

134

194

0.44

0.21

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

142

Wrote articles for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication

0.46

0.47

0.25

0.48

215

292

135

194

0.47

0.39

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

143

Went to a night club with a floor show

0.6

0.5

0.42

0.54

215

292

135

195

0.54

0.49

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

144

Took photographs

0.32

0.4

0.21

0.38

215

292

135

195

0.37

0.31

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

145

Built or flew a model airplane

0.11

−0.02

0.2

0.49

215

292

135

195

0.04

0.38

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

147

Participated in a student demonstration (strike, water-fight, etc.)

0.28

0.3

0.13

0.51

215

291

135

193

0.29

0.37

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

148

Attended an orchestra concert

0.41

0.49

0.42

0.41

215

292

135

195

0.46

0.41

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

149

Attended a formal dance

0.56

0.64

0.41

0.63

213

292

135

195

0.61

0.55

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

150

Read magazines at a newsstand without buying any

0.42

0.4

0.32

0.23

215

292

135

195

0.41

0.27

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

151

Worked for a club or organization

0.4

0.38

0.22

0.3

215

292

135

194

0.39

0.27

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

152

Played football (touch or tackle)

0.41

0.42

0.24

0.35

215

290

134

195

0.42

0.31

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

153

Bowled

0.51

0.6

0.51

0.36

215

291

134

195

0.56

0.42

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

154

Went to the movies

0.45

0.49

0.43

0.68

215

289

134

195

0.47

0.59

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

155

Developed pictures (darkroom work)

0.63

0.66

0.12

0.44

215

291

133

195

0.65

0.32

0.66

Objective Behavior Inventory

156

Attended a professional stage play

0.46

0.5

0.34

0.38

215

291

131

195

0.48

0.36

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

157

Solicited advertising for a school paper, yearbook, or similar publication

0.48

0.58

0.4

0.44

215

291

133

194

0.54

0.42

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

158

Went swimming

0.56

0.52

0.22

0.57

214

289

134

195

0.54

0.44

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

159

Participated in field events (shot put, javelin, high jump, etc.)

0.39

0.43

0.23

0.45

215

291

134

194

0.41

0.36

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

160

Saw a foreign movie

0.43

0.43

0.32

0.44

212

288

134

195

0.43

0.39

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

161

Rode a bicycle

0.44

0.51

0.19

0.51

215

291

134

195

0.48

0.39

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

162

Attended a horse race

0.66

0.52

0.36

0.59

212

291

134

195

0.58

0.5

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

163

Played tennis

0.64

0.66

0.45

0.57

215

290

134

195

0.65

0.52

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

165

Attended a student stage play

0.3

0.44

0.25

0.19

214

291

134

194

0.38

0.21

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

166

Drove a car

0.88

0.64

0.57

0.51

215

290

134

195

0.77

0.54

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

167

Went boating

0.5

0.44

0.32

0.5

215

291

134

195

0.47

0.43

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

168

Washed dishes

0.35

0.66

0.2

0

215

291

134

195

0.54

0.08

0.92

Objective Behavior Inventory

169

Worked crossword puzzles

0.27

0.38

0.22

0.3

215

291

134

194

0.33

0.27

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

171

Watched TV

−0.01

0.21

0.11

0.3

215

291

134

195

0.12

0.22

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

172

Put up decorations for a party

0.39

0.54

0.27

0.25

215

291

134

195

0.48

0.26

0.44

Objective Behavior Inventory

173

Attended a ballet performance

0.43

0.48

0.65

0.18

215

291

133

195

0.46

0.4

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

175

Visited a person in a hospital

0.58

0.55

0.28

0.52

214

290

134

194

0.56

0.43

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

176

Obtained a book or journal from the library

0.03

0.33

0.11

−0.03

215

291

134

194

0.21

0.03

0.36

Objective Behavior Inventory

177

Read the Bible

0.34

0.52

0.31

0.47

215

291

134

195

0.45

0.41

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

178

Danced the twist

0.39

0.56

0.55

0.26

215

291

134

194

0.49

0.39

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

180

Participated in a drag race

0.53

0.38

0.37

0.4

215

290

134

195

0.45

0.39

0.12

Objective Behavior Inventory

181

Attended a professional prize fight or wrestling match

0.55

0.35

0.47

0.27

215

291

134

195

0.44

0.36

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

182

Flew in an airplane

0.51

0.49

0.49

0.51

215

290

134

194

0.5

0.5

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

183

Attended a fashion show

0.37

0.56

0.6

0.55

214

291

134

195

0.48

0.57

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

184

Visited a museum

0.45

0.51

0.28

0.41

215

291

134

194

0.49

0.36

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

185

Played baseball or softball

0.43

0.48

0.32

0.28

215

291

132

195

0.46

0.3

0.32

Objective Behavior Inventory

186

Went on a camping trip

0.54

0.61

0.55

0.51

215

291

133

195

0.58

0.53

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

188

Went hunting

0.72

0.54

0.56

0.47

215

291

133

195

0.62

0.51

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

189

Discussed religion with friends

0.15

0.41

0.05

0.07

215

291

133

195

0.3

0.06

0.48

Objective Behavior Inventory

191

Talked for over 30 minutes at a time on the telephone

0.49

0.46

0.21

0.41

214

291

133

195

0.47

0.33

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

193

Participated in a wedding (usher, bridesmaid, etc.)

0.69

0.65

0.42

0.68

215

290

133

195

0.67

0.59

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

194

Bought stamps for a stamp collection

0.25

0.26

0.34

0.11

215

291

134

195

0.26

0.21

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

196

Twirled a baton

0.22

0.43

0.22

0.5

214

290

133

194

0.34

0.39

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

197

Wrote letters to friends your own age

0.42

0.39

0.2

0.25

215

290

134

194

0.4

0.23

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

198

Went window shopping

0.27

0.18

0.2

0.36

215

290

134

195

0.22

0.3

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

201

Painted a picture (oil, watercolor, pastel, etc.)

0.24

0.39

0.1

0.26

214

289

134

194

0.33

0.2

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

202

Played cards (bridge, pinochle, etc.)

0.29

0.47

0.25

0.34

215

291

133

195

0.4

0.3

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

203

Told jokes

0.09

0.29

−0.02

0.22

213

290

134

93

0.21

0.08

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

204

Listened to records in a store without buying

0.37

0.46

0.24

0.38

215

291

134

195

0.42

0.32

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

205

Played in a dance or jazz band

0.56

0.44

0.49

0.7

213

291

133

194

0.49

0.62

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

206

Ate Chinese food

0.48

0.61

0.36

0.5

215

290

134

195

0.56

0.45

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

210

Was consulted for help or advice by someone with a personal problem

0.28

0.22

0.06

0.09

215

292

134

195

0.25

0.08

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

217

Wrote a letter to a ‘pen-pal’ whom you have never met in person

0.16

0.47

0.18

0.31

215

292

134

195

0.35

0.26

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

218

Did an imitation or impersonation of another person

0.23

0.31

0.2

0.21

215

292

134

194

0.28

0.21

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

222

Attended a church or service of a religion other than your own

0.37

0.54

0.5

0.42

214

291

134

194

0.47

0.45

0.04

Objective Behavior Inventory

223

Placed a long distance call of over 500 miles

0.38

0.4

0.28

0.17

215

290

134

194

0.39

0.22

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

224

Went on a double date

0.67

0.63

0.29

0.32

214

292

134

194

0.65

0.31

0.68

Objective Behavior Inventory

225

Wrote a ‘love-letter’

0.38

0.37

0.25

0.27

214

290

134

194

0.37

0.26

0.22

Objective Behavior Inventory

227

Wrote a ‘letter-to-the-editor’

0.35

0.65

0.33

0.29

215

292

134

195

0.54

0.31

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

229

Played a slot machine

0.18

0.34

0.4

0.41

215

292

134

195

0.27

0.41

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

231

Read poetry that was not required reading

0.4

0.46

0.15

0.29

215

292

134

195

0.44

0.23

0.42

Objective Behavior Inventory

232

Wrote poetry on your own initiative

0.17

0.3

0.08

0.11

213

291

134

193

0.25

0.1

0.3

Objective Behavior Inventory

237

Borrowed clothing from a friend

0.48

0.45

0.42

0.43

214

292

134

194

0.46

0.43

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

240

Attended a religious revival meeting

0.59

0.7

0.5

0.57

215

292

132

193

0.66

0.54

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

241

Looked something up in an encyclopedia

−0.01

0

−0.02

0.32

215

291

134

194

0

0.19

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

242

Bought or sold corporate stocks

0.46

0.28

0.46

0.49

215

291

134

194

0.36

0.48

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

243

Baked a cake or pie from scratch (no mixes)

0.28

0.54

−0.03

0.32

215

292

134

195

0.44

0.18

0.52

Objective Behavior Inventory

244

Wore sun glasses after dark

0.46

0.39

0.15

0.19

214

292

133

191

0.42

0.17

0.5

Objective Behavior Inventory

246

Ate a steak cooked rare

0.25

0.42

0.24

0.23

215

292

134

195

0.35

0.23

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

249

Entered a speech or debate contest

0.36

0.41

0.21

0.39

215

290

133

195

0.39

0.32

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

250

Had your back rubbed

0.26

0.38

0.14

0.34

214

291

134

195

0.33

0.26

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

254

Produced a work of art (not for a course)

0.24

0.29

0.05

0.19

214

292

133

195

0.27

0.13

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

260

Visited a friend’s home overnight

0.47

0.62

0.3

0.4

213

292

135

194

0.56

0.36

0.4

Objective Behavior Inventory

261

Visited a relative’s home overnight

0.48

0.53

0.42

0.44

215

291

135

194

0.51

0.43

0.16

Objective Behavior Inventory

262

Had a friend visit your home overnight

0.61

0.6

0.45

0.46

215

292

135

193

0.6

0.46

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

263

Started a conversation with strangers

0.3

0.28

0.15

−0.01

215

292

135

194

0.29

0.06

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

264

Went to the movies alone

0.43

0.36

0.38

0.35

214

290

135

192

0.39

0.36

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

265

Tried on clothes in a store without buying anything

0.4

0.4

0.23

0.16

215

292

135

192

0.4

0.19

0.42

Objective Behavior Inventory

266

Pushed a stalled car (other than your own)

0.38

0.37

0.4

0.33

215

290

135

194

0.37

0.36

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

267

Listened to classic or semi-classical music

0.31

0.41

0.25

0.12

215

292

135

193

0.37

0.17

0.4

Objective Behavior Inventory

269

Played a pinball machine

0.39

0.41

0.36

0.37

215

292

135

194

0.4

0.37

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

270

Went skin diving

0.43

0.49

0.54

−0.01

215

292

135

194

0.47

0.24

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

271

Attended an art exhibition

0.26

0.39

0.29

0.35

215

291

135

194

0.34

0.33

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

272

Played polo (indoor or outdoor)

0.16

0

−0.02

0.39

214

292

135

194

0.07

0.23

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

273

Went skeet or trapshooting

0.55

0.39

0.34

−0.01

214

291

135

194

0.46

0.14

0.64

Objective Behavior Inventory

275

Acted in a play

0.37

0.48

0.53

0.44

215

292

135

194

0.43

0.48

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

276

Tried to hypnotize someone

0.38

0.45

0.1

0.23

215

292

135

194

0.42

0.18

0.48

Objective Behavior Inventory

277

Taught Sunday school

0.75

0.69

0.34

0.59

215

291

135

193

0.72

0.5

0.44

Objective Behavior Inventory

281

Played basketball

0.47

0.6

0.07

0.42

215

292

135

194

0.55

0.28

0.54

Objective Behavior Inventory

282

Mended clothing

0.3

0.12

0.1

0.01

215

291

135

194

0.2

0.05

0.3

Objective Behavior Inventory

283

Discussed sports with friends

0.38

0.3

0.18

0.39

214

292

135

194

0.33

0.31

0.04

Objective Behavior Inventory

285

Had a blind date

0.25

0.42

0.13

0.24

215

291

135

193

0.35

0.2

0.3

Objective Behavior Inventory

288

Wore formal clothing (evening gown, tuxedo, dinner jacket, etc.)

0.51

0.6

0.31

0.51

215

289

135

194

0.56

0.43

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

289

Told a ‘dirty joke’ to male friends

0.35

0.56

0.34

0.37

215

288

135

194

0.48

0.36

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

290

Told a ‘dirty joke’ to female friends

0.38

0.55

0.33

0.42

215

289

135

194

0.48

0.38

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

295

Lent clothing to a friend

0.5

0.41

0.4

0.4

215

289

135

194

0.45

0.4

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

296

Played Monopoly, Scrabble, or similar games

0.33

0.39

0.42

0.34

215

291

135

194

0.36

0.37

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

298

Participated in a science contest or talent search

0.5

0.39

0.25

0.36

214

290

135

194

0.44

0.32

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

300

Played in a concert orchestra

0.5

0.59

0.31

0.4

215

291

135

194

0.55

0.36

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

301

Lifted weights

0.42

0.39

0.35

0.39

214

290

135

194

0.4

0.37

0.06

Objective Behavior Inventory

302

Played table tennis or ping-pong

0.26

0.42

0.45

0.4

215

290

135

194

0.35

0.42

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

303

Worked on Hi-Fi or radio equipment

0.37

0.06

0.22

0.07

215

291

133

194

0.2

0.13

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

304

Dined by candle light

0.38

0.49

0.27

0.26

214

290

135

194

0.44

0.26

0.36

Objective Behavior Inventory

305

Participated in a debate or speech contest

0.33

0.44

0.07

0.47

214

291

134

194

0.39

0.32

0.14

Objective Behavior Inventory

306

Played soccer

0.43

0.44

0.31

0.37

215

291

135

194

0.44

0.35

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

307

Played in a marching band

0.69

0.78

0.59

0.55

215

291

135

194

0.74

0.57

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

309

Went fishing

0.54

0.42

0.41

0.47

215

291

135

194

0.47

0.45

0.04

Objective Behavior Inventory

311

Led a cheering section

0.27

0.47

0.19

0.32

215

291

135

194

0.39

0.27

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

313

Played Solitaire

0.46

0.55

0.35

0.4

215

290

135

194

0.51

0.38

0.26

Objective Behavior Inventory

314

Collected insect specimens

0.28

0.33

−0.07

0.28

215

291

135

194

0.31

0.14

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

315

Ate candy

−0.02

0.66

0.11

−0.02

215

291

135

194

0.42

0.03

0.78

Objective Behavior Inventory

317

Rode on a roller coaster, Ferris wheel, merry go round, or similar ride

0.51

0.44

0.24

0.3

215

292

135

195

0.47

0.28

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

319

Studied with the radio, record player, or TV on

0.45

0.23

0.34

0

215

292

135

194

0.33

0.14

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

321

Paid someone to polish your shoes

0.36

0.25

0.35

−0.04

215

292

135

195

0.3

0.13

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

322

Cut your own hair

0.42

0.49

0.12

0.27

215

292

135

194

0.46

0.21

0.5

Objective Behavior Inventory

325

Spent an hour at a time daydreaming

0.17

0.26

0

0.3

215

292

135

194

0.22

0.18

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

329

Read in bed before going to sleep

0.39

0.54

0.41

0.17

215

292

135

195

0.48

0.27

0.42

Objective Behavior Inventory

331

Rode a horse

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.48

214

292

135

195

0.6

0.41

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

332

Obtained the autograph of a famous person

0.24

0.56

0.19

0.43

215

292

135

195

0.44

0.34

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

335

Dove from a diving board or tower more than 6 feet above the water

0.51

0.37

0.4

0.28

215

292

135

195

0.43

0.33

0.2

Objective Behavior Inventory

336

Jumped in a parachute

0

0

0

0

215

289

135

195

0

0

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

339

Ate 2 or more candy bars a day

0.28

0.47

0.23

0.26

215

291

135

195

0.39

0.25

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

344

Tried to convince someone to change his (her) religious beliefs

0.22

0.48

0.26

0.22

215

289

135

195

0.38

0.24

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

345

Tried to convince someone to change his (her) political or social beliefs

0.22

0.36

0.08

0.25

215

289

135

194

0.3

0.18

0.24

Objective Behavior Inventory

346

Practiced decorative or unusual handwriting

0.24

0.12

0.15

0.11

214

290

135

195

0.17

0.13

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

347

Took a bubble bath

0.28

0.49

0.2

0.26

215

290

135

195

0.41

0.24

0.34

Objective Behavior Inventory

348

Read the editorial page of a newspaper

0.2

0.23

0.11

0.31

215

290

135

195

0.22

0.23

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

349

Made a new friend

0.13

0.28

−0.02

−0.01

215

291

135

195

0.22

−0.01

0.46

Objective Behavior Inventory

352

Took a long walk alone

0.38

0.38

0.15

0.3

214

290

135

195

0.38

0.24

0.28

Objective Behavior Inventory

353

Wrote a letter to a congressman

0.22

0.41

0.09

0.42

213

291

135

195

0.33

0.29

0.08

Objective Behavior Inventory

355

Took exercises

0.34

0.39

−0.02

−0.04

215

289

134

195

0.37

−0.03

0.8

Objective Behavior Inventory

357

Turned down an invitation for a date

0.55

0.58

0.33

0.42

214

290

135

195

0.57

0.38

0.38

Objective Behavior Inventory

358

Stayed out on a date after 2 A.M.

0.51

0.52

0.32

0.3

215

291

135

195

0.52

0.31

0.42

Objective Behavior Inventory

359

Read the Stock Market quotations

0.45

0.37

0.42

0.22

215

292

135

195

0.4

0.31

0.18

Objective Behavior Inventory

360

Fed a stray dog or cat

0.26

0.38

0.14

0.37

213

291

135

195

0.33

0.28

0.1

Objective Behavior Inventory

361

Washed and/or polished a car

0.45

0.42

0.22

0.54

215

292

135

194

0.43

0.42

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

362

Ate breakfast in bed (not as a patient)

0.12

0.25

−0.03

0.38

215

292

135

195

0.2

0.22

0

Objective Behavior Inventory

363

Looked up a word in the dictionary

0

0

0

−0.01

215

292

134

195

0

−0.01

0.02

Objective Behavior Inventory

365

Confused people by pretending to be your twin

0.35

0.39

0.3

0.5

214

291

135

195

0.37

0.42

0

Life Goals

371

Becoming accomplished in one of the performing arts (acting, dancing, etc.)

0.23

0.44

0.05

0.22

211

285

130

189

0.35

0.15

0.4

Life Goals

375

Becoming an outstanding athlete

0.43

0.36

0.25

0.14

212

289

134

193

0.39

0.19

0.4

Life Goals

377

Becoming a community leader

0.41

0.36

0.23

0.27

213

288

133

193

0.38

0.25

0.26

Life Goals

384

Writing good fiction (poems, novels, short stories, etc.)

0.31

0.39

0.09

0.01

209

286

131

193

0.36

0.04

0.64

Life Goals

385

Being well read

0.26

0.32

0.14

0.33

207

290

132

194

0.3

0.26

0.08

Life Goals

388

Keeping in good physical condition

0.25

0.18

0.04

0.21

214

288

132

189

0.21

0.14

0.14

Life Goals

389

Producing good artistic work (painting, sculpture, decorating, etc.)

0.29

0.42

0.04

0.15

214

285

133

192

0.37

0.11

0.52

Life Goals

390

Becoming an accomplished musician (performer or composer)

0.33

0.6

0.32

0.4

212

289

131

188

0.5

0.37

0.26

Life Goals

392

Keeping up to date with political affairs

0.38

0.4

0.19

0.25

213

291

134

193

0.39

0.23

0.32

Life Goals

400

Engaging in exciting and stimulating activities

0.21

0.29

0.03

0.14

214

288

133

191

0.26

0.1

0.32

Dating

406

Frequency of dates: Casual coke [soda], coffee or study dates per month

0.13

0.38

0.19

0.21

189

271

126

186

0.28

0.2

0.16

Dating

407

Frequency of dates: Informal dates to movies, student gathers etc per month

0.26

0.5

0.25

0.24

200

277

131

186

0.41

0.24

0.34

Dating

408

Frequency of dates: Formal dates to dances and big parties per month

0.26

0.41

0.1

0.44

194

274

125

179

0.35

0.31

0.08

Done During Past Year

412

Took a course over and above requirements

0.14

0.33

0.23

0.13

214

290

134

194

0.25

0.17

0.16

Done During Past Year

414

Became pinned [‘going steady’] or engaged

0.29

0.37

0.01

0.08

215

289

134

193

0.34

0.05

0.58

Done During Past Year

417

Donated money to a charity

0.29

0.35

0.17

0.17

210

289

133

191

0.33

0.17

0.32

Done During Past Year

418

Worked for the election of a political party or candidate

0.41

0.4

0.1

0.3

215

291

134

193

0.4

0.22

0.36

Done During Past Year

419

Contributed money to a political party or candidate

0.15

0.2

0.27

−0.02

214

290

134

191

0.18

0.1

0.16

Done During Past Year

425

Signed a petition

0.32

0.39

0.32

0.42

215

291

133

191

0.36

0.38

0

Done During Past Year

426

Customized an automobile

0.45

−0.01

0.1

−0.01

207

285

134

190

0.2

0.04

0.32

Done During Past Year

427

Read one or more non-fiction books that were not required reading

0.16

0.36

0.18

0.22

215

291

134

193

0.28

0.2

0.16

Done During Past Year

428

Painted a room or house

0.31

0.58

0.39

0.47

215

291

134

193

0.48

0.44

0.08

Done During Past Year

429

Got a tattoo

0

0

0

0

215

291

133

193

0

0

0

Done During Past Year

431

Set up a schedule with specific times for various activities

0.28

0.35

0.01

0.22

215

288

134

193

0.32

0.14

0.36

Done During Past Year

432

Went to a carnival, amusement park or circus

0.32

0.39

0.35

0.26

215

290

133

193

0.36

0.3

0.12

Done During Past Year

434

Made your own Christmas cards

0.16

0.54

0.25

0.26

215

289

134

192

0.39

0.26

0.26

Done During Past Year

435

Grew a beard

0.32

0

0.23

0

214

291

134

192

0.14

0.1

0.08

Done During Past Year

436

Bleached or dyed your hair

0.54

0.63

0.27

0.44

215

291

134

191

0.59

0.37

0.44

Done During Past Year

437

Wore a wig

0.39

0.19

−0.01

0.31

214

289

134

191

0.28

0.18

0.2

Done During Past Year

443

Visited a foreign country

0.35

0.57

0.55

0.66

212

287

134

191

0.48

0.62

0

Done During Past Year

446

Read one or more novels that were not required

0.26

0.47

0.28

0.28

215

287

134

191

0.38

0.28

0.2

Done During Past Year

447

Went on a vacation trip with friends your own age

0.38

0.5

0.32

0.47

214

288

134

191

0.45

0.41

0.08

Done During Past Year

449

Donated blood

0.7

0

−0.01

0

215

287

134

191

0.36

0

0.72

Done During Past Year

454

Read the biography of a famous person

0.11

0.13

0.11

0.13

213

284

133

188

0.12

0.12

0

Done During Past Year

456

Changed your hair style

0.29

0.36

0.09

0.02

212

289

134

190

0.33

0.05

0.56

Items In The Home

575

Carpentry tools (hand)

0.43

0.39

−0.03

0.14

215

292

132

194

0.41

0.07

0.68

Items In The Home

576

Power tools

0.75

0.68

0.71

0.56

215

290

132

193

0.71

0.63

0.16

Items In The Home

577

Library of more than 200 books

0.64

0.74

0.62

0.71

214

288

132

192

0.7

0.68

0.04

Items In The Home

578

One or more musical instruments

0.75

0.75

0.73

0.82

215

291

132

193

0.75

0.79

0

Items In The Home

579

Some art supplies or equipment

0.41

0.54

0.32

0.36

214

289

132

192

0.49

0.34

0.3

Items In The Home

580

Sports equipment

0.26

0.54

−0.03

0.42

215

292

132

193

0.43

0.25

0.36

Items In The Home

581

A sewing machine

0.9

0.86

0.91

0.94

215

291

132

194

0.88

0.93

0

Items In The Home

582

Photographic equipment

0.26

0.43

0.31

0.21

215

291